Orthodontics

Orthodontics

Orthodontics (Greek. – orthos-straight- lat.dens- tooth) – part of dentistry dealing with prevention and treatment of anomalies in dentition and occlusion.

Occlusion is a closure of the dental arcade during a fixed (usual) position of the mandible in relation to the superior jaw.

There are physiological (correct, neutral) and pathological types of occlusion featured with anomalous position of certain teeth and denture deformities.

There are known the following main types of abnormal occlusion:

  1. 1) prognathic or distal (excessive growth and development in the superior jaw)
  2. 2) anterior or medial (prevails mandible in growth)
  3. 3) open (teeth do not contact with each other)
  4. 4) deep (excessive overlapping of teeth of superior jaw over the teeth of mandible)
  5. 5) asymmetrical or cross-bite (shift of jaws to one or both sides).
  6. 6) neutral (right) occlusion with an abnormal position of individual teeth.

Each type of abnormal occlusion has number of possible options.

Pathological types of occlusion often are formed within children who are bottle-fed.

Anatomic feature of the structure of the foreface in the childhood has its own differences. The mandible is always smaller than the superior jaw. Aligning the size of the jaws happens during the first year of life while breastfeeding (child is forced to protrude the mandible for sucking milk). During the process of bottle feeding instead of sucking the baby had to swallow milk quickly (mismatch of the sizes of feeding nipple or too big a hole in it) the mandible does not work and its size continues to lag behind in growth of superior jaw.

In a later age child is also reluctant to eat solid food, chews it sluggish and this can lead to distorted and incorrectly located teeth.

The formation of malocclusion can be affected by the baby forced head position during sleep or feeding, the habit of sleeping in one position (on the side, resting the hands under his head) facilitates narrowing or shift of mandible.

Particular attention parents should pay to bad habits: sucking of feeding nipple longer than 2 years, thumb sucking, biting of cheeks, pen or pencil, mouth breathing. In many cases, abnormalities of the jaws developments are hereditary.

For the first acquaintance and check-up of the child should be brought to the orthodontist after the eruption of all milk dentitions. The doctor will examine and give advice on what to do to establish and maintain proper occlusion. Particular attention should be paid to the treatment of milk dentitions to prevent decay and early tooth loss, because in place of each milk tooth cuts out at a certain time a permanent one.

You should visit orthodontist once a year for proper growth of teeth until the formation of permanent occlusion. For as we know, it is better to prevent anomaly rather than to treat it later.

Why the pathology of occlusion should be treated in case of presence?

First of all, malocclusion leads to increased pressure on the teeth when chewing. Eventually, you will begin to notice that your teeth are moving, their necks are exposed, there are gaps between the teeth, the enamel wears away.

Incorrect dental occlusion of teeth or their or partial absence leads to pathologies of TMJ (temporo-mandibular joint). Signs of joint dysfunction are well known: headaches, tinnitus, dizziness, crunch when opening the mouth, pain and stiffness in the muscles.

Also pathology of occlusion leads to aesthetic disorders: changing proportions and profile of face, disorder of pronunciation, not beautiful smile with crooked spaced teeth, which are difficult for hygienic care, which in turn leads to the emergence of cavities that are a hard subjected for quality therapeutic treatment (sealing). Very often in areas where there are crooked teeth accumulate plaque, food debris and this leads to the emergence of secondary decay that destroys teeth.

All of the above mentioned, in our point of view, is a weighty argument in order to find the time and the opportunity to consult a doctor orthodontist. If after consultation it is necessary to begin orthodontic treatment, correct diagnosis should be made. To conduct this we make indentations of the superior jaw and mandible for the manufacture cast model of the teeth, orthopantomography, teleroentgenography, computed tomography (if indicated), orthodontic photos. After orthodontist carefully analyzes cast models and additional methods of examination is made up an orthodontic treatment plan that is adjusted with the patient or the child’s parents and is chosen the device which will be used for further treatment.

Oral cavity should be respected (treated teeth) and should be performed professional hygiene procedure.

There are a lot of orthodontic devices, but they all are divided into two categories: removable and non-removable.

Removable Devices patients put on by themselves and have to wear them during a certain number of hours a day, but most importantly, that they should be “worn” in your mouth, not in your pocket, because then there will be no benefits. The most effective are both-jaws devices used in children with milk and interchangable occlusion. However, after such treatment teeth cannot be set perfectly aligned and fully compensate the pathology of the bite. The advantage of this technology is the ability to begin treatment in the early stages of occlusion, correct pathology, help your child to cope with addictions that deprave the bite. Treatment with removable devices is appropriate till the formation of permanent occlusion (12-14 years).

Fixed equipment – bracket system, the most advanced technique in the alignment of teeth in orthodontics.

Today there is a large number of bracket systems, which differ depending on the material from which they are made (metal, plastic, ceramic, sapphire, gold) and construction (ligature and self-ligatured).

Classic ligature brackets are fixed on the teeth, an arch is attached to them (which actually aligns teeth) using ligatures (elastic or metal). During the treatment arcs and ligatures are changed, brackets are activated, you need to visit orthodontist an average of 1 time per month, the average duration of treatment with such system is 2-2.5 years.

Brackets without ligatures (self-ligatured) have some differences in their structure and principle. The very bracket is a clasp which is fixed on the tooth, inside of it is set an arc that is closed by bracket (ligature absent). An arc is fixed by brackets. Our experience of work with self-ligatured bracket system “Damon” is more than 8 years. Using of these brackets is a way to improve the quality of orthodontic treatment.

“Damon” system is a combination of passive self-regulated braces and highly technological arches. It enables the use of brackets with different options of torque (tilt) depending on the specific diagnosis and clinical case that affects the treatment time.

Brackets system “Damon” allows to treat without extractions of teeth cases which are “hopeless” according to traditional ways of treatments and even with a deficit of place inside dental arcade both with children and adult patients. This enables to improve the proportions of the face, predict the patient’s age profile and provide aesthetic smile.

Thanks to passive self-medication (constant action of the weak force) there is virtually no discomfort and pain during the treatment, treatment time is reduced by an average of 25-30%, the number of visits (visits 10-12) for the whole time of treatment, the time between visits is increased (1 per 8-10 weeks), which is convenient for patients who live in other cities or abroad.

Do the brackets “Damon” have disadvantages?

They are fixed on the vestibular surface of the tooth and therefore are visible when wearing them. If this is a disadvantage, it is the only one.

After completion of orthodontic treatment not less important period of retention begins (retention of the achieved results). Usually the non-removable retainers are fixed on oral surface of the tooth and there are made special mouth guards for night use. It should be noted that in case of children the retention period lasts twice as long as apparatus one while in case of adults it can be even life-long.

Choosing orthodontic treatment in “ROMA” Clinic you choose modern treatment ensuring not only beautiful but flawless smile!

The result will surpass your wildest dreams!